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A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass , in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in " Jabberwocky ", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy". Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word.

In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark , Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak".

In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet , a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending " Frankenstein " and "word". Many neologisms are examples of blends.

In Punch in , the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft , a portmanteau of microcomputer and software.

The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as " gerrymandering ", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.

The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In , Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as " Brexit ". Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts.

On the other hand, turducken , a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey , was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in ; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's " Word of the Year " in ; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", " advertorial ", " infotainment ", " infomercial ".

A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name.

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Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r. Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was an destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that made landfall on Florida and Louisiana the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas, in August , causing catastrophic damage from central Florida to eastern Texas. Subsequent flooding, caused as a result of fatal engineering flaws in the flood protection system known as levees around the city of New Orleans, precipitated most of the loss of lives; the storm was the third major hurricane of the record-breaking Atlantic hurricane season , as well as the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record to make landfall in the United States , behind only the Labor Day hurricane , Hurricane Camille in , Hurricane Michael in The storm originated over the Bahamas on August 23, , from the merger of a tropical wave and the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten.

Early on the following day, the tropical depression intensified into a tropical storm as it headed westward toward Florida, strengthening into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August After briefly weakening again to a tropical storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26 and began to intensify.

The storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico but weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on August 29, over southeast Louisiana and Mississippi; as Katrina made landfall, its front right quadrant, which held the strongest winds, slammed into Gulfport , devastating it. Overall, at least 1, people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making Katrina the deadliest United States hurricane since the Okeechobee hurricane. Over fifty breaches in surge protection levees surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana was the cause of the majority of the death and destruction during Katrina.

Most of the transportation and communication networks servicing New Orleans were damaged or disabled by the flooding, tens of thousands of people who had not evacuated the city prior to landfall became stranded with little access to food, shelter or basic necessities; the scale of the disaster in New Orleans provoked massive national and international response efforts. Multiple investigations in the aftermath of the storm concluded that the U.

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Army Corps of Engineers , which had designed and built the region's levees decades earlier, was responsible for the failure of the flood-control systems, though federal courts ruled that the Corps could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of There were widespread criticisms and investigations of the emergency responses from federal and local governments, which resulted in the resignations of Federal Emergency Management Agency director Michael D. Several agencies including the United States Coast Guard , National Hurricane Center and National Weather Service were commended for their actions; the NHC was found to have provided accurate hurricane forecasts with sufficient lead time.

Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23, , as the result of an interaction between a tropical wave and the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten; the storm strengthened into Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August The tropical storm moved towards Florida and became a hurricane only two hours before making landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico, it continued strengthening over open waters.

On August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale , becoming the third major hurricane of the season. An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification but caused the storm to nearly double in size; the storm intensified after entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours. This rapid growth was due to the storm's movement over the "unusually warm" waters of the Loop Current.

Katrina attained Category 5 status on the morning of August 28 and reached its peak strength at UTC that day, with maximum sustained winds of mph and a minimum central pressure of mbar ; the pressure measurement made Katrina the fifth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record at the time, only to be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma in the season.

However, this record was broken by Hurricane Rita. The hurricane subsequently weakened due to another eyewall replacement cycle, Katrina made its second landfall at UTC on August 29, as a Category 3 hu. Owned by the Commander's Family of Restaurants, whose matriarch Ella Brennan , resided next door, it has long been one of the best-regarded upscale restaurants in the country. Paul Prudhomme and Emeril Lagasse are two of its alumni. Emile Commander established a small saloon at the corner of Washington Avenue and Coliseum Street in Within a few years he turned it into a restaurant patronized by the distinguished neighborhood families of the Garden District.

By Commander's Palace was attracting gourmets from all over the world. Legend has it that stored alcohol was ferried across from the adjacent cemetery during prohibition for patron beverages.

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In the s, Frank G. Giarratano was the owner of the restaurant. He lived above the restaurant with his wife and their two sons. There were rumors that there were private dining rooms upstairs rented to riverboat captains, etc; the upstairs rooms were the private residence of Mr. Giarratano and his family, while the downstairs, with a separate entrance, remained a family establishment.

Fearing that the restaurant business would decline from what it had been during World War II , Giarratano's declining health,in he sold Commander's Palace to Frank and Elinor Moran,who refurbished it and carried on its tradition of excellence with an expanded menu including many recipes still used; the Morans lived in the adjacent home facing Coliseum.

Some thirty plus years when the famous Brennan restaurant family of New Orleans purchased the restaurant in late , they began redesign of the interior to complement the outdoor setting. Large windows replaced walls, custom trellises and paintings were commissioned.

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Many of the segments were based on hunting and turning the day's catch into a five-star dinner; the restaurant suffered extensive damage due to Hurricane Katrina in After a full renovation, the restaurant re-opened on October 1, In , the Brennan family uncovered that the restaurant did not open in , as is inscribed on the plaque on the front of the restaurant, but opened in To the owners' amusement, many articles still refer to the opening year as The restaurant held an "Oops" promotion during the fall of with special cocktails and go-cups to commemorate the discovery.

In , the Foundation awarded the Most Outstanding Restaurant honor to the restaurant. A building bearing the likeness of Commander's Palace can be found in the video game " Red Dead Redemption 2 ". List of the oldest restaurants in the United States Official website.

Today, the district is known as the French Quarter, or "the Quarter," a reflection of the diminished French influence after the Louisiana Purchase. Most extant historical buildings were constructed in the late s, during a period of Spanish rule, or during the early s, after U. The district is a National Historic Landmark , numerous contributing buildings have received separate designations of significance; the French Quarter is a prime destination for local residents.

Compared to other areas of the city, the Quarter experienced light flood damage from Hurricane Katrina in ; the district was protected by its distance from breached levees and the strength and height of the nearest river levees and flood walls. The French Quarter has an elevation of 1 foot. According to the United States Census Bureau , the district has a total area of 0. The most common definition of the French Quarter includes all the land stretching along the Mississippi River from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue and inland to North Rampart Street , it equals an area of 78 square blocks.

Some definitions, such as city zoning laws, exclude the properties facing Canal Street, redeveloped by the time architectural preservation was considered, the section between Decatur Street and the river, much of which had long served industrial and warehousing functions. Louis Street and North Rampart Street to the west. The National Historic Landmark district is stated to be 85 square blocks. As of the census of , there were 3, people, 2, households, families residing in the neighborhood.

Many of the buildings date from before , when New Orleans was acquired by the United States in the Louisiana Purchase, although 19th-century and early 20th-century buildings were added to the area.

List of Louisiana Creoles

Since the s, the historic buildings can not be demolished. Most of the French Quarter's architecture was built during the late 18th century and the period of Spanish rule over the city, reflected in the architecture of the neighborhood; the Great New Orleans Fire and another great fire in destroyed most of the Quarter's old French colonial architecture, leaving the colony's new Spanish overlords to rebuild it according to more modern tastes. Their strict new fire codes mandated that all structures be physically adjacent and close to the curb to create a firewall. The old French peaked roofs were replaced with flat tiled ones, wooden siding was banned in favor of fire-resistant stucco, painted in the pastel hues fashionable at the time; as a result, colorful walls and roofs and elaborately decorated ironwork balconies and galleries, from the late 18th and the early 19th centuries, abound.

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When Anglophone Americans began to move in after the Louisiana Purchase, they built on available land upriver, across modern-day Canal Street; this thoroughfare became the meeting place of two cultures, one Francophone Creole and the other Anglophone American.. The median of the wide boulevard became a place where the two contentious cultures could meet and do business in both French and English; as such, it became known as the "neutral ground", this name is used for medians in the New Orleans area.

In the late 19th century the Quarter became a less fashionable part of town, many immigrants from southern Italy and Ireland settled there. In , the closure of Storyville sent much of the vice concentrated therein back into the French Quarter, which "for most of the remaining French Creole families Many of the remaining French Creoles moved to the University area. In the early 20th cent. Acadians The Acadians are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.

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The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces, as well as part of Quebec , present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France , it was administratively separate from the French colony of Canada. France has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Acadian family names have come from many areas in France. For example, the Maillets are from Paris. During the French and Indian War , British colonial officers suspected Acadians were aligned with France after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia , carried out the Great Expulsion of the Acadians during the — period, they deported 11, Acadians from the maritime region. One-third perished from disease and drowning; the result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada.

Other historians indicate that it was a deportation similar to other deportations of the time period. Most Acadians were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude, or marginal lifestyles; some Acadians were deported to England , to the Caribbean , some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana state, where they developed what became known as Cajun culture.