In the patient group, the increase in the level of C-peptide after using honey was not significant when compared with glucose or sucrose. Significantly, the high degree of tolerance to honey was recorded in subjects with diabetes as well, indicating a lower glycemic index of honey. Honey elevated PGL after 1 hour and decreased it after 3 hours. Elevation of insulin and C-peptide was significantly higher after dextrose than after honey. Dextrose slightly reduced cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C after 1 hour and significantly after 2 hours and increased TG after 1, 2, and 3 hours.
Hypertriglyceridemic patients: artificial honey increased TG, but honey decreased TG. In diabetic patients, honey compared with dextrose caused a significantly lower rise of PGL. Honey caused elevation of insulin compared to sucrose after different intervals and lower elevation of PGL in diabetics. Longer-term honey consumption resulted also in weight reduction in all the patients, and control of the blood pressure in the patients, who had hypertension before the honey intervention. The cardiovascular status improved in the patients, who had coronary heart disease CHD before the intervention.
Both the GI and PII of honey were significantly lower when compared with sucrose in patients and controls. In both patients with diabetes and controls, the increase in the level of C-peptide after the honey was significant when compared with either glucose or sucrose. Honey in Diabetic Wound Healing Besides the health benefits of ingesting honey in diabetes, another important use of honey could be in managing diabetic wounds [ 89 ].
Conclusions Considerable evidence from experimental studies shows that the honey may provide benefits in the management of diabetes mellitus. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. Authors' Contributions All authors contributed equally to this paper.
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Gastroparesis is a disorder affecting people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents delayed gastric emptying. The vagus nerve controls the movement of food through the digestive tract. If the vagus nerve is damaged or stops working, the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work normally, and the movement of food is slowed or stopped.
Just as with other types of neuropathy, diabetes can damage the vagus nerve if blood glucose levels remain high over a long period of time. High blood glucose causes chemical changes in nerves and damages the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the nerves. Gastroparesis can make diabetes worse by making it more difficult to manage blood glucose.
When food that has been delayed in the stomach finally enters the small intestine and is absorbed, blood glucose levels rise. If food stays too long in the stomach, it can cause problems like bacterial overgrowth because the food has fermented. Also, the food can harden into solid masses called bezoars that may cause nausea, vomiting, and obstruction in the stomach. Bezoars can be dangerous if they block the passage of food into the small intestine.